What’s the point of Lockdown Mode in Android P?

Lockdown Mode is a new feature in Android P — it disables fingerprint login, forcing you to enter your PIN/passcode to unlock the device.  This is an important, but subtle, distinction. Ultimately, what’s the difference between your passcode and your fingerprint?

The difference comes down to legal precedents in the US.  Legally, the police can compel you to unlock a device using biometrics (e.g. face or fingerprint).  They can’t, however, force you to unlock the device using your passcode. This is due to the Fifth Amendment to the US constitution — you can’t be compelled to testify against yourself.  Courts have said that revealing your passcode is equivalent to providing testimony against yourself — but using your body to unlock the phone isn’t legally the same thing. I’m not going to try to explain the underlying legal theories in depth, but if you want to read more, check out these articles:

There are a lot more details and complications that I’m glossing over, but if you were curious about why Android bothered to create a new mode that forced one type of login while disabling another — I think this is why they did it.

Disclaimer: I’m not a lawyer and this isn’t legal advice — if police action is in your threat model, you need to talk to a real lawyer.

Yes, you should run ProGuard / R8 on open-source library dependencies

I have seen a few people argue that there’s no reason to let ProGuard run on the open-source libraries that they include in their app, because if the source is publicly available, there’s no point of obfuscating, right? Who are you fooling? Here’s an example from one library’s README file:

Their ProGuard rules file is just a big wildcard keep:


I think that’s exactly wrong, for two reasons — shrinking, and obfuscation.

Shrinking

The majority of the shrinking that ProGuard performs is by removing unused code from third-party libraries. You’re not writing a lot of code that you don’t use, but you’re probably not using all of the features in the third-party libraries that you include. If you use a

-keep com.example.** { *; }

-type rule on open source libraries, you won’t get the benefits from ProGuard’s shrinking. None of that unused code will be removed.

Obfuscation

I’m going to show this with an illustration. What does this class do?

The eagle-eyed among you may recognize a couple of clues and have a hunch, but I doubt you know everything that it’s doing. So let’s look at the same class, but without obfuscating the third-party libraries.


It’s a lot easier to figure out what this code does when the libraries aren’t obfuscated. Simply put, obfuscating the open-source code allows for better obfuscation of your own your code.
(I mention ProGuard by name, because it’s still the main tool for Android development, but these arguments apply just the same to R8.)

Quick-and-dirty flat-file storage

Not every app needs cloud storage with a SQLite cache.

I’m going to let you in on a little secret that helps me prototype apps quickly.  Sometimes, when nobody’s looking, I just write my data to disk. I don’t build a cloud backend.  I don’t build a SQLite database. I just serialize my data to JSON and write it to files on the disk.  It’s really easy.

There are definitely some drawbacks to this approach, so if your head is about to light on fire with anger towards me, skip to the Caveats section below.

The code

Here’s what it takes; it’s just a couple of lines of Kotlin.  Say I’ve got a FooConfiguration object that I want to persist to disk.  It’s complicated enough that I don’t want to put it in SharedPreferences, so we’re going to write it to a file.

Step 1: We have a couple of dependencies to bring in.

Step 2: we serialize the object to JSON and write it to disk.

Step 3: When we need to read that data, we read from disk and deserialize from JSON.

That’s it.  Persistent storage, done.

Caveats

Like I mentioned at the beginning, this is something I do to get an app idea off the ground quickly.  When you go to scale this up, you’re going to run into drawbacks.

  • Sync & conflicts – If you try to sync this storage over a cloud file store (e.g. Dropbox, Google Drive, etc), or build some import/export functionality, you’re quickly going to run into this question — How do I handle conflicts? This is a hard problem, and the best advice is to build your storage model such that somebody else handles that complexity.
  • Data model evolution – If you change your data model, you need to ensure that it’s backwards-compatible, or else you’ll lose data from previously-stored objects.
  • Security – storing your data to local disk may not make sense, depending on the sensitivity of the data.  This is highly dependent on your specific needs, but keep it in mind.
  • Local-only – The only copy of the user’s data is on their device.  If you want to build any kind of social app where users interact with each other’s data, this isn’t going to get the job done.

My point here is, this isn’t a perfect solution, and it may be downright bad for your app.  Don’t take my advice blindly.

Ship It

I have multiple apps in the Play Store using this method right now.  No, I’m not going to tell you which ones. My point is, if you’re working on an app but you’re getting stuck on building a backend, this is a way to punt on the complexity of your persistent storage.  Build it quick-and-dirty for now, so you can focus on the app; revisit a more scalable solution for storage when you’re ready.

 

Best Practices for Enabling ProGuard

I’ve written several blog posts recently about technical aspects of using ProGuard to obfuscate your code in Android apps.  Then, in March, I gave a talk at DroidCon Boston walking through an overview of How ProGuard Works. Through all of those, I tried to keep the content very matter-of-fact and technical.  I got a lot of technical questions in response, but I also got a lot of questions about the organizational and software engineering aspects — how to think about maintenance, and testing, and debugging, and communicating with your team.  So what follows are the less technical, but possibly more practical, guidelines I’ve found for working with ProGuard.

You’ll find that most of these tips are focused on the fact that obfuscation can expose problems that are only seen at runtime, and then only when a specific code path is executed.  This means that most of these rules are focused on making sure you’re likely to discover those problems.

As early as possible

If possible, start using ProGuard from day 1 of a new project.  I’ve gone through the experience of enabling ProGuard on a project that’s been worked on for years without it, and it’s more difficult.  You’ll get a warning about some code, and you’ll find that nobody on the team remembers that code.

Enabling ProGuard from day 1 ensures that issues are encountered immediately, when the relevant code is fresh in your mind.

As many builds as possible

Don’t enable ProGuard in your day-to-day dev builds*, it will increase your build times a little and cause you extra pain in debugging.  But for every other build — QA, beta, release — turn ProGuard on. You want as many testers as possible exercising the code as many ways as possible to ensure that you notice any ProGuard bugs early on.

*There is an exception to this, which is when you get a report of a bug that you suspect might be triggered by obfuscation, you want to enable ProGuard in your dev environment so you can easily reproduce the bug.  This means that you want to have a single, easy, flag in your build.gradle that you can flip to true to enable ProGuard on your debug builds. Have all of the configuration files ready for that build type — the same configuration files you’re using for the rest of your builds — you want the only effort on your part to be flipping the one flag.

The Phased Approach

If you’ve inherited a codebase that is already in production, you can’t enable ProGuard from day 1, but you can try to fake it a bit.  Start by enabling ProGuard in your dev builds and fixing the compile-time errors. Then, run a ProGuard-ed build and exercise the app as much as possible.  Walk through each feature as well as you can, and try to find problems. Next, enable ProGuard for your QA builds, and wait for a bit. This is the real key.

You’ll give your QA team time to work through the app and find problems.  You want to make sure they’ve had time to exercise the app before you move on to the next phase, which is a beta build, if you have one.  A beta should hopefully expose your obfuscated app to a broad, but still small, set of users. Let that work for a bit, then you can enable for your public builds.

Make your Keep rules as specific as possible

I’ve mentioned this in my blog post and in the talk, but it bears repeating.  There’s no value in using ProGuard if you’re going to kneecap it with overly-broad keep rules.

Document every keep rule

This is deceptively important.  It’s tempting to just add the keep rule you need to a config file and be done, but you’re hurting yourself in the long run.  A year from now, you’ll look at the rule and wonder why it was there. It might be referring to code that’s long gone, or a library that’s no longer used.  Or it could be critically important. You don’t know, because the rule itself doesn’t tell you the reason it was added. And, perhaps more importantly, it doesn’t tell you how to test whether it’s still necessary.

Add a comment.  Explain what was broken and why that rule fixed it.

Conclusion

That’s it.  Try it out.  If you’ve got some different ideas, based on your experience, I would love to hear it.

How ProGuard Works – Links

Thanks for watching my talk, How ProGuard Works, at Droidcon Boston or Android Summit. Here are some of the links that I mentioned in my slides, as well as links to some of my blog posts including the diagrams I used.

R8:

My posts:

Gradle snippet for forcing a particular version of ProGuard:

buildscript {
  ...
  configurations.all {
    resolutionStrategy {
      force 'net.sf.proguard:proguard-base:6.0.1'
    }
  }
}

Feeding ProGuard’s inputs: where are all of these rules coming from?

When ProGuard runs on your Android app, it’s not only using the rules that you’ve explicitly added, but rules from a couple of other sources as well.  Below are four sources to watch out for:

Rules explicitly added by the developer

These are the rules in a file that you add with `proguardFile` in your build.gradle.  If you’ve used ProGuard at all, you’re probably accustomed to adding configuration rules here.

build.gradle snippet showing the proguardFiles method

Default ProGuard file

A base set of widely-applicable rules get added by that “getDefaultProguardFile” line above, which you’ll see in the template build.gradle file.  It protects things like Parcelables, view getters and setters (to enable animations on view properties) and anything with the @Keep annotation.  You should walk through this file to see what ProGuard rules get added by default.  It’s also a great source of example rules when you’re trying to make your own.

snippet of example rules from the default Android ProGuard file

AAPT generated rules

When AAPT processes the resources in your app, it generates rules to protect, for example, View classes that are referenced from layout files, and Activities referenced in your manifest. Each rule comes with one or more comments saying where the class was referenced, so you can track down the offending resource if need be.  You can find these rules in:

build/intermediates/proguard-rules/{buildType}/aapt_rules.txt.
snippet of example ProGuard rules generated by AAPT
snippet of example ProGuard rules generated by AAPT

Note that this source isn’t explicitly added in your build.gradle, the Android Gradle Plugin takes care of including these rules for you.

Rules from libraries

If an Android library has ProGuard configs that apps should use when they include that library, the library can declare those rules with the consumerProguardFile method in its build.gradle.  For example, here’s a snippet from Butterknife’s build.gradle.

snippet of Butterknife’s build.gradle showing the consumerProguardFiles method

 

Bringing it all together

Rather than trying to track down every single source of ProGuard config that’s getting added to your app, you can look at them all together.  You can specify

-printconfiguration proguard-config.txt

in your rules file and ProGuard will print out all of the configuration rules to the specified file.  Note that they’re not in the same order that they were originally specified, so it can be hard to figure out where a particular rule is coming from.  

Reading ProGuard’s Outputs

When ProGuard processes an Android app, it generates a few output files to show what happened in each step. These files can be really helpful if you’re trying to figure out what ProGuard changed, or why your code ended up the way it did. But those files aren’t self-documenting, so I’m going to walk you through why each of those files is created and what it shows you.

These files are in the build directory, something like:

app/build/outputs/mapping/{buildType}/

Here’s a diagram I made with a really high-level overview of the steps ProGuard takes when it’s analyzing your app, because the output files line up nicely with these steps.  Refer back to this for some context around the following steps.

seeds.txt

The first things ProGuard does is to read all of your configuration files, and then read in all of the Java bytecode (.class files) to create what it calls the class pool.  ProGuard then looks through the class pool and prints to seeds.txt a list of every class and member that matches any of your keep rules.  This is useful for debugging if the keep rule you wrote actually matches the class you’re trying to keep.

If it’s a class that matches, there will be a line with just the fully-qualified name of the class.  For a member, it will be the fully-qualified class name, followed by a colon, followed by the member’s signature.

usage.txt

Knowing what code it has to keep, ProGuard then goes through the class pool and finds code that it doesn’t need to keep.  This is the shrinking phase, where ProGuard strips out unused code from the app.  As it’s doing this, it prints out unused code — code that’s being removed — to usage.txt.  Now this name seems backwards to me; I think it should be unused.txt or shrinkage.txt or something, but that’s just me.  

This is useful if you’re trying to figure out why a class doesn’t exist at runtime.  You can check whether it got removed here, or got renamed in the next step.

If an entire class is removed, you’ll get a line with the fully-qualified class name.  If only certain members of a class are removed, you get the class name followed by a colon, and then a line (indented with four spaces) for each member that was removed.

mapping.txt

The next thing ProGuard needs to do is obfuscate as much code as possible — that is, it’s going to rename classes and members to meaningless names like “a”, “b”, etc.  As it’s doing this, ProGuard prints the old name and new name for every class and member to mapping.txt.  Not all code is renamed, but all code is listed in mapping.txt.

This is the file you need if you’re trying to de-obfuscate a stacktrace.  It allows you to work backwards from the obfuscated names to the original names of code.

Each line is of the form “{old name} -> {new name}”.  You get a line for the class name, then a line for each member of the class.  Note that constructors are shown as “<init>()”.  

dump.txt

After ProGuard has done all of its magic (shrinking and obfuscating), it prints out one last file which is essentially a full listing of all the code after processing.  That is, everything that’s left in the class files, but in a less optimized format, so it’s a huge file.  I have a demo app that I use for testing ProGuard stuff, and the final app is about 1 MB, but the dump.txt is almost 18 MB.  It’s enormous. Here’s the output for a trivial class:

This can be really useful, though, if you want to see what’s in your class files but don’t want to decompile the .class or .dex files.

Archiving

One last note is that these files are important artifacts of your build — especially mapping.txt.  If this is a build you’re going to distribute (say on the Play Store, or even internally for testing), you’re going to need your mapping.txt to de-obfuscate stacktraces.  

Reverse-engineering the fake Haven apps

As happens with successful and interesting apps, somebody made impostor copies of the Guardian Project’s Haven app, which got a lot of press due in part to Edward Snowden’s involvement.  As of this writing, the copycat has a dozen listings on the Play Store, all with little variations in the name.  (Hat tip to @rettiwtkrow, whose tweet was the first I saw of it).

Interestingly, the fake apps have a slightly different icon from the real app.  Below is the real app’s icon on the left, and the fake app on the right.

I downloaded half a dozen of these copycats and started reverse-engineering them.  The copycats are all the same as each other, only the package name changes.  But they’re all completely different from the real app.  I wondered at first if they might have ripped off the real app’s code since it’s open source, but no.

When you open the fake, it’s immediately clear that they’re just using the name to drive downloads, and the functionality of the app isn’t even trying to look real.  It’s a run-of-the-mill crapware “cleaner” app.

It has a tab bar across the bottom, and each tab is a different tool: “Charge Booster”, “Battery Saver”, “CPU Cooler”, and “Junk Cleaner”.    They show some made-up stats about the device, and make promises they can’t deliver.  For the most part, as you run one of these tools, it displays an animation (that isn’t actually tied to any real work being done), and then a full-screen ad.  After one tool, I was presented with a fake Facebook sign-up page.

      

If you try to apply the “Ultra Power Saving Mode” it sends you to the OS settings app to enable “Allow modify system settings”.  I found this alarming, and assumed this is where I would find the nefarious code.  So I decompiled the app and poked around, and was honestly pretty underwhelmed.

I should note that the impostor app’s targetSdk is 24, meaning it has to ask for permissions at runtime, which is nice and a little surprising, given that Google isn’t yet forcing developers to do so.

Anyway, I need not have worried – after you grant this app the ability to modify system settings, all it does is turn down your screen brightness, disable autorotation, and disable background syncing for other apps.

(such battery savings. many mAh. very wow)

Then I got a little worried again when I saw the app has a BroadcastReceiver that runs immediately when the app is installed or updated.  This means the app has code that runs in the background even if you never open the app.  But again, I shouldn’t have worried because all it does is try to show a toast message saying “[app] Is Optimized by Fast Cleaner & Battery Saver.”

The bottom line is that these copycats appear to be using the Haven name and publicity just to drive downloads, then make a quick buck off of advertising.  I couldn’t find any evidence of anything more sinister than that.

For my last point, let’s talk about attribution. I can’t say for sure, but I have an educated guess where this came from.  There’s an app which is almost entirely the same code on the Google Play store.  Unlike the Haven copycats, this app has accurate screenshots on the Play Store, and the UI matches the Haven impostors.  Either this is the same developer, or it’s a false flag.  I can’t rule that out, so I’m not saying this with 100% confidence, but a preponderance of the evidence surely doesn’t look good for that developer.

I assume Google will be along shortly to remove the offending copycats (and hopefully terminate their ad accounts, and the rest of their apps under both publisher listings).  But it’s an important reminder that copycats exist, and it’s important to remain vigilant.

Those Android Versions Dashboards are Overrated

The Android Developers website has a chart showing how many Android devices are on each version of the OS.  You’ve probably seen it before.

Each month that chart is updated, and Android-focused blogs expend a lot of words analyzing the changes. [1 2 3]  Broader tech blogs use it to decry Android’s “fragmentation” problem. [1 2 3 4 5]

But I’m here to let you in on a little secret: that chart doesn’t mean what you think it means, and it’s not all that useful.  That chart represents all Android devices, all over the world, that have connected to the Google Play Store in the last seven days.  

To show why that group of devices isn’t the data we want, let’s compare that to data from one of my personal apps.  And because I’m a nice person, I’m not going to subject you to another pie chart.

For any Android version on the x-axis, the height represents the proportion of devices that are running that version or newer.  These are the numbers you need to make the important decision of “what is the lowest version of Android that I’m going to support?”  For one example, let’s look at Android 7.0.  The Google Play numbers would tell you that only 23.8% of devices are on Android 7.0 or newer, but for my app, that’s 67.8% — a difference of 44%.  That’s a night and day difference.

Why so different?

There are a lot of reasons that it’s different, but I’ll cover a few:

  • All over the world.  The Google Play numbers encompass Android devices all over the world.  When you see numbers broken down by country, there are big differences.  In most cases, your target market is not the whole world.
  • Not just phones. Google’s numbers include phones, tablets, and anything else running Android.  There are a lot of weird things running Android.  You don’t need to support somebody’s fridge.  For a lot of apps, you shouldn’t even care about tablets.
  • Not just primary phones.  I personally have at least eight devices that would show up in Google’s chart (i.e. I’ve powered them on in the last seven days), including an old tablet running Android 4.4 that I keep around for testing.  But if you’re trying to target me as a user, you don’t need to care about the oldest device on my desk, you just need to support my primary phone – which is running Android 8.0.

Takeaway

If you’re trying to figure out what’s the lowest version of Android that you’re going to support for an existing app, make sure you’re looking at data from your app.  I guarantee you it’s going to be different than the public Google Play numbers.  And if you’re starting a new app, try to find a source of data that more closely matches your target market.